Research Question: From the perspective of the United States, should most important cyber-attacks be defined as a type of warfare and what are the benefits and dangers of doing so?


“A serious cyberattack could trigger Article 5, where an attack against one ally is treated as an attack against all”(Stoltenberg 2019).

Cyberattacks on American infrastructure, military, and private enterprises are a new type of war. Significant cyberattacks can leave a nation without electricity, withheld from clean water, and unable to communicate to their population. Industries that control nuclear plans, dams, and essential supply chains, if interfered, can affect millions of…

1.0 Research Question

In the article, you must agree or disagree, in whole or in part, with position(s) taken in by the European Council on Foreign Relations (ECFR) and offer another perspective addressed in this course useful for resolving the conflict situation in Yemen? The editors ask you to conform to the publication guidelines, which requires that articles are between 1,200–2,500 words in length. Essay is approximately 3,500 words in length and will refer to the report as ECFR.

  • Thesis: ECFR takes a Pollyannaish approach in Identifying Partners and Solutions

In Samir Saran’s The Collision of These Three Geographies is Creating a New…

Gaddis’s account for the American institutions that aided in preventing direct military conflict, thus resulting in “a time of peace,” is a paradoxical account limited by an ethnocentric worldview. Gaddis writes that institutions like economic cooperation, cultural exchange, international organizations, and geography of bi-polar alliances may have contributed to a reduction of direct engagement between world powers (Gaddis 106–117). Gaddis speaks about how bi-polar alliances, cut with regional geography, play an essential part in peace. When it comes to bi-polar alliances, the Soviet Union and the People’s Republic of China were adversaries post-Stalin death and engaged in a direct military…

Abstract: This paper seeks to explain that constructivism is a superior framework of understanding the Peloponnesian War over realism.

Constructivism is a framework that recognizes the importance of how actors’ behaviours are influenced by norms, values, identities, and cultures (Fierke,14). While liberalism and realism focus on material factors like power and trade, constructivists recognize the importance of ideas in analyzing a nation’s relations (Walt, 12). Constructivism perceives that identities and cultures evolve and that their evolution shapes the way states respond to situations (Walt, 42). A realist’s approach to the Peloponnesian War’s genesis is that Sparta was threatened by Athens…

Abstract: This essay is a case study of the Rwandan Civil War. My purpose is to determine whether insurgency is a localized event or has a broader regional and international context.


The Rwandan Civil War was the retaliation of African partisans wanting to bring about a different political future for Central Africa. The Rwanda Civil War (1990–1994) was not a localized event formed in isolation but a part of a regional framework of an ethnic insurgency by the Tutsi people. The Tutsi world changed from social class to partisan to criminal. Not by their own doing, but by imported European…

To: Future President of the United States

RE: Advice for when you served in office

Section 1. Purpose. As President, you are the chief procurement power of the United States. You have the authority to set terms and conditions of work with the private sector and the end-user departments of the Federal Government.[1] Under the powers of the Constitution, you are also the chief executive to the military, its departments and branches, and its direction. As part of your role, you can request an opinion of the status of the future of war. As part of that authority, our department…

MEMORANDUM FOR: U.S Department of Homeland Security

FROM: Alexander Emesh, MA. Candidate

SUBJECT: Three most urgent Terrorist Threats to USA

DATE: 02–20–2021


The Homeland is threatened with the evolving terrorism capacity of antigovernmental homegrown militias. America’s top three terrorist threats are from the militia members of the: Three Percenters, Oathkeepers, and Bugaloos. These homegrown extremists have formed a loose coalition in 2017 in the “Unite the Right” rally (Signer 2020). Cross-regional leaders’ unification on antigovernmental extremism and white supremacy poses the greatest terrorist threat to the Homeland. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) will need to…

Alexandre Emesh-Fridleifson

MA. candidate for Arizona State University Centre for Future Warfare.

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